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Misinterpretations of the EAC-PM Study UPSC NOTE


  • Media reports and politicians sensationalized the findings, suggesting a rapid Muslim population growth threatening Hindus.

  • The study itself acknowledges limitations and avoids making causal links between religion and fertility rates.

Socio-economic Factors Drive Fertility:

  • The number of children families have is more influenced by factors like education and economic opportunities than religion.

  • A high growth rate can indicate development shortcomings, not a thriving population.

Understanding Population Change

  • There are three ways to analyze population shifts:

  • Absolute Increase: While the Hindu population grew more in absolute numbers, the Muslim population increase was proportionally larger.

  • Proportion of Population: The Hindu proportion slightly decreased, while the Muslim proportion slightly increased. However, the initial difference in proportions was significant (Hindus were a much larger group in 1950).

  • Rate of Change: The study uses this method, showing a larger percentage increase for Muslims. However, this is statistically expected due to the initial difference in proportions. Similar high rates of change are seen for other minority groups (e.g., Buddhists) without any cause for concern.

Looking at Other Data Sources:

  • The Pew Research Center study found religious proportions in India remained stable since partition.

  • Demographer projections suggest a peak Muslim population proportion of around 18.8% by 2101, and recent fertility rate declines might make this even lower.


  • The passage emphasizes the need for proper context and data analysis to avoid misleading interpretations of population data

  • It highlights the importance of considering socio-economic factors and looking at multiple data sources to understand population trends.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Misinterpretations of the EAC-PM Study UPSC NOTE
Misinterpretations of the EAC-PM Study UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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