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R&AW (Research and Analysis Wing) UPSC NOTE

 R&AW (Research and Analysis Wing)

  • The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), also known as RAW, is India's foreign intelligence agency

  • Function: RAW's primary function is to gather foreign intelligence, counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation, advising Indian policymakers, and advancing India's foreign strategic interests. 

  • Headquarters: New Delhi, India

  • Established: 1968

  • Current Chief: Ravi Sinha 

  • RAW is one of India's most important intelligence agencies and plays a crucial role in safeguarding national security.

Why have the U.S., Canada, Australia and Pakistan brought up allegations that the agency has spearheaded targeted killings and surveillance of separatists on their soil?

  • The United States, Canada, Australia, and Pakistan have all accused the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of India of involvement in activities on their soil, including:

  • These are assassinations of individuals, often separatists or dissidents, that RAW is alleged to be carrying out.

  • This involves monitoring the activities of separatist groups or individuals who might be seen as a threat to Indian security.

  • High-profile deaths of separatists with connections to India have raised suspicions.

  • Particularly when they occur in countries with significant Indian diaspora populations.

  • Intelligence agencies in these countries might have intercepted communications or gathered evidence suggesting RAW involvement.

  • Several countries, like Canada with its Sikh population, have separatist movements that India views with concern. 

  • This can lead to heightened scrutiny of RAW's activities.

What is the Indian government’s stand?

  • India has consistently denied these allegations.

  • The Indian government maintains that RAW operates within the law and respects the sovereignty of other countries.

  • The accusations against RAW highlight the complexities of international espionage and the challenges of balancing national security concerns with respect for international law.


Do these operations follow certain norms, especially if it’s a friendly country?

  • Indian officials have questioned why the U.S., Canada, the U.K. and Australia don’t take action against vocal Khalistani activists like Pannun and Nijjar themselves.

  • Who are accused of inciting attacks on diplomatic missions and threatening Indian diplomats in those countries. 

  • They cite a similar refusal by the Canadian government in the 1980s, to act against Khalistani activist Talwinder Singh Parmar.

  • Which allowed him to orchestrate the bombing of an Air India plane ‘Kanishka’ in 1985.

  • One of the worst such terror attacks in which 329 were killed. 

  • Parmar was killed during a visit back to India in 1992 in a gunfight with Punjab police.

  • India is certainly not the only country to be accused of carrying out extra-judicial, extra-territorial attacks, and the U.S., Israel etc. 

  • Cite the UN charter on self-defence when carrying out killings of those wanted within their country. 

  • In the shadowy world of intelligence agencies, however, more informal rules apply.

  • That such operations must not be executed in friendly countries, that there should be no links between the operatives and diplomatic missions, and finally, that they don’t get caught.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: R&AW (Research and Analysis Wing) UPSC NOTE
R&AW (Research and Analysis Wing) UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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