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Critical environmental issues India faces UPSC NOTE

 Climate Change:

  • Need for concrete action beyond promoting solar energy.

  • Focus on reducing emissions and building resilience against climate impacts (floods, droughts etc.).

  • Implement plans for evacuation, rehabilitation, and food security in vulnerable regions.

Forest Degradation:

  • Increase forest cover per capita (currently very low compared to other countries).

  • Improve the quality of forest cover, not just relying on plantations or urban trees.

  • Repeal the Forest (Conservation) Amendment Bill 2023 and enact stronger forest protection measures.

Polluted Cities:

  • Address air and water pollution in major cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Bengaluru.

  • Improve sewage treatment (currently only 28% treated).

  • Protect and restore green spaces and water bodies within cities to combat heat islands.

Himalayan Concerns:

  • Mitigate the impact of rapid glacial retreat on water and food security.

  • Address the concerns of Himalayan communities regarding climate change.

  • Protect ecologically important wetlands and marginal landscapes.

Public Participation and Transparency:

  • Implement robust Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) mechanisms with meaningful public participation.

  • Strengthen EIA notifications and prevent their weakening through loopholes.

  • Listen to stakeholder concerns and address environmental protests effectively.

  • Improve environmental governance and enforcement of environmental laws.


Restore genuine conservation

  • Ill-advised Policies: Policies driven by commercial interests, like green credits and compensatory afforestation, replace genuine conservation efforts.

  • Sustainable Development: True sustainable development involves more than just commercially profitable steps.

  • Enforcement: Enforcement mechanisms and bodies need more authority to ensure adherence to environmental laws.

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Critical environmental issues India faces UPSC NOTE
Critical environmental issues India faces UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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