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Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) UPSC NOTE

 Why in news

  • Close to 677 million people in India required treatment against tropical diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and snakebite envenoming in 2021, yet global research about these ailments continues to be heavily underfunded compared to illnesses such as HIV/AIDS

What is Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)?

  • NTDs are a group of infections that are most common among marginalised communities in the developing regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas

  • They are caused by a variety of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and parasitic worms.

  • NTDs are especially common in tropical areas where people do not have access to clean water or safe ways to dispose of human waste.

  • The affected populations are typically among the poorest in the world

  • These diseases contribute to a cycle of poverty, as they cause long-term disability, social stigma, and economic burden, which in turn hinders economic development and attracts less commercial investment in treatments and research

  • They also lead to other health problems such as anemia, blindness, chronic pain, infertility and disfigurement.

India's Burden of NTDs

  • With 677 million people requiring treatments, India tops the charts followed by Nigeria with 139 million, Indonesia with 79 million, Ethiopia with 71 million and Bangladesh with 56 million. 

  • Congo, Philippines, Tanzania, Uganda and Pakistan are the other nations in the top ten list. 

  • The geographic spread clearly shows that most of the disease burden in the case of NTDs is shouldered by countries in Asia and Africa

  • India tops the charts in terms of dengue deaths with 17,500 such fatalities recorded in 2019. 

  • India also tops the charts in leprosy cases with over one lakh cases in 2022. 

  • With over 50,000 deaths due to venomous snakes in 2019, the mortality in India is much higher than the distant second — Pakistan (2,000 fatalities).

  • A lot can be done to alleviate the health burden caused by NTDs. 

  • Many can be managed with inexpensive existing interventions or new technologies developed through research

  • However, these diseases still suffer from a lack of adequate funding, research and development, and global attention

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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) UPSC NOTE
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) UPSC NOTE
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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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