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Rooftop solar potential UPSC NOTE

 Growth and Targets:

  • India's installed rooftop solar capacity reached 11.87 GW in 2023-24, the highest annual increase (2.99 GW).

  • The target is to reach 40 GW of RTS capacity by 2026 (revised from 2022).

  • Ultimately, India aims for 100 GW of RTS by 2030 to contribute to its 500 GW renewable energy goal.

What is the RTS programme?

  • India launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in January 2010

  • Its main objective was to produce 20 GW of solar energy (including RTS) in three phases: 2010-2013, 2013-2017, and 2017-2022

  • In 2015, the target was revised to 100 GW by 2022, including a 40-GW RTS component.

  • Yearly targets were set for each State and Union Territory

Progress and Challenges:

  • By December 2022, India had installed 7.5 GW of RTS capacity and extended the 40-GW target deadline to 2026.

  • Despite financial incentives, technological advances, and awareness efforts, significant potential remains untapped.

  • India’s overall RTS potential is approximately 796 GW.

  • To achieve the target of 500 GW renewable energy capacity by 2030 (with a 280 GW solar component), RTS needs to contribute about 100 GW by 2030.

How are States Faring?

Top Performers:

  • Gujarat: Installed RTS capacity of 3,456 MW due to quick approval processes, numerous RTS installers, and high consumer awareness.

  • Maharashtra: Installed RTS capacity of 2,072 MW, supported by robust solar policies and a conducive regulatory environment.

  • Rajasthan: Highest RTS potential in the country (1,154 MW) due to its vast land area and high solar irradiance, along with streamlined approvals and financial incentives.

Other Notable Performers:

  • Kerala: Installed capacity of 675 MW.

  • Tamil Nadu: Installed capacity of 599 MW.

  • Karnataka: Installed capacity of 594 MW.

Lagging States:

  • Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand: Struggle with bureaucratic hurdles, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of public awareness, hindering their RTS potential.

Pradhan Mantri Surya Ghar Muft Bijli Yojana:

  • Aims to install RTS systems in one crore households, providing up to 300 units of free electricity monthly.

  • An average system size of 2 kW per household, resulting in a total RTS capacity addition of 20 GW.

  • Financial outlay of ₹75,021 crore, including financial assistance for consumers (₹65,700 crore) and incentives for distribution companies (₹4,950 crore).

  • Additional funds for local bodies, model solar villages, payment security mechanisms, capacity building, and awareness and outreach.

  • Encourages adoption of advanced solar technologies, energy storage solutions, and smart grid infrastructure.

Key Strategies for Further Growth:

  • Consumer Awareness: Educational campaigns to promote RTS benefits.

  • Financial Viability:

  • Government subsidies.

  • Multiple low-cost financing options (loans from banks and non-banking institutions with easier access).

  • Technological Advancements: R&D in solar technology, energy storage solutions, and smart grid infrastructure.

  • Workforce Development: Training programs (like Suryamitra program), vocational courses, skill development initiatives.

  • Policy & Regulation: Review and update net-metering regulations, grid-integration standards, and building codes.


  • India shows promise in rooftop solar, but significant progress is needed across all states to meet ambitious national targets. 

  • Implementing the mentioned strategies can accelerate growth and contribute to India's clean energy future.


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Rooftop solar potential UPSC NOTE
Rooftop solar potential UPSC NOTE
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