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 Speaker pro tem:

  • Appointed by the President to temporarily perform Speaker's duties until a full-time Speaker is elected. (Article 95(1) of the Constitution)

  • Traditionally, a senior member from the ruling party is chosen by the government. (Not mandated by the Constitution)

  • Administers oath to other MPs and presides over the election of the Speaker.

  • Bhartruhari Mahtab (BJP) is the Speaker pro tem for the 18th Lok Sabha

Election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker:

  • Speaker: Elected by Lok Sabha members on a date fixed by the President. (Article 93)

  • All Speakers in independent India have been elected unopposed.

  • Deputy Speaker: Elected on a date fixed by the Speaker.

  • Conventionally offered to the Opposition party since 1991 (broken in 17th Lok Sabha).

Roles of the Speaker:

  • Conducts business in the Lok Sabha.

  • Certifies Money Bills (limited role for Rajya Sabha).

  • Decides on disqualification of MPs due to defection (Tenth Schedule).

  • Past Speakers have favored the ruling party in these decisions, which is discouraged.

  • Refers Bills to Standing Committees for scrutiny. (Referral rate declined recently)

  • Suspends members for disorderly conduct (used extensively in the 2023 winter session).


  • British Speaker: Resigns from their political party to ensure impartiality.

  • Not followed in India, but could be a step towards greater independence.

  • Deputy Speaker: Traditionally offered to the Opposition party for balanced representation.

  • This convention should be revived in the 18th Lok Sabha.



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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Speaker UPSC NOTE
Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam
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