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Sickle cell anemia UPSC NOTE

 Why in news

  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has invited Expressions of Interest (EoI) from eligible organisations for the “joint development and commercialisation” of low dose or paediatric oral formulation of hydroxyurea to treat sickle cell disease in India.

  • India has the highest prevalence of sickle cell disease in South Asia, and over 20 million sickle cell affected individuals reside in the country. 

  • The government is committed to eliminate the disease before India celebrates it's Amrit Kaal in 2047

  • While most pharmaceutical companies in India market 500 mg capsules or 200 mg tablets of hydroxyurea, the biggest challenge in treatment is that it’s not available in the suspension form for effective use in the case of paediatric patients

Sickle cell anemia

  • Sickle cell disease (SCD), also simply called sickle cell, is a group of hemoglobin-related blood disorders typically inherited.

  • The most common type is known as sickle cell anemia.

  • It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin found in red blood cells.

  • This leads to a rigid, sickle-like shape under certain circumstances.

  • Problems in sickle cell disease typically begin around 5 to 6 months of age.

  • A number of health problems may develop, such as attacks of pain (known as a sickle cell crisis) in joints, anemia, swelling in the hands and feet, bacterial infections, dizziness and stroke.

  • It often gets worse with age

  • All the major organs are affected by sickle cell disease.

  • Sickle cell disease occurs when a person inherits two abnormal copies of the β-globin gene (HBB) that makes haemoglobin, one from each parent.

  • This gene occurs in chromosome 11.

  • Several subtypes exist, depending on the exact mutation in each haemoglobin gene

Hydroxyurea

  • Hydroxycarbamide, also known as hydroxyurea, a myelosuppressive agent, is an effective drug for treating patients of sickle cell disease, and thalassemia

  • In sickle-cell disease it increases fetal hemoglobin and decreases the number of attacks.

  • It is taken by mouth

  • Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, fevers, loss of appetite, psychiatric problems, shortness of breath, and headaches


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Sickle cell anemia UPSC NOTE
Sickle cell anemia UPSC NOTE
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