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Transposons UPSC NOTE

 Why in news

  • A recently published paper by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Arc Institute in the U.S. describes a new RNA-guided gene editing system. 

  • This tool builds on an older discovery: that one of the genes in the IS110 family of bacterial transposons contains the instructions for cells to make an RNA molecule with two loops.

  • Scientists found this RNA could bind to two pieces of DNA, rather than the usual one piece, and form a bridge between them. This is a very useful ability.

Transposons

  • Some genes were able to move around within the genome

  • These genes were called mobile elements or transposons.

  • Between 1948 and 1983, researchers found transposons in an array of life-forms, including bacteriophages, bacteria, plants, worms, fruit flies, mosquitos, mice, and humans. 

  • They were nicknamed ‘jumping genes’

  • Transposons influence the effects of genes by turning “on” or “off” their expression using a variety of epigenetic mechanisms. 

  • They are thus rightly called the tools of evolution, for their ability to rearrange the genome and introduce changes.

  • More than 45% of the human genome consists of transposable elements. 

  • Just as they create diversity, they also create mutations in genes and lead to diseases. 

  • However, most of the transposons have themselves inherited mutations and have become inactive, and thus can’t move around within the gnome


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Learnerz IAS | Concept oriented UPSC Classes in Malayalam: Transposons UPSC NOTE
Transposons UPSC NOTE
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